The history of mathematics in India is a rich and fascinating one, dating back thousands of years to the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. Over the centuries, India has produced many great mathematicians and astronomers who have made important contributions to the field and left a lasting legacy. From Aryabhata and Brahmagupta in ancient times to Srinivasa Ramanujan and Manjul Bhargava in more recent times, Indian mathematicians have been at the forefront of mathematical discovery and innovation. These individuals have not only advanced our understanding of mathematics but have also had a significant impact on the wider world, shaping the course of human history and paving the way for future generations of mathematicians and scientists. This article will provide a comprehensive overview of 15 of the most famous Indian mathematicians of all time, highlighting their contributions and legacy.

**The most famous Indian mathematicians of all time are:**

## Aryabhata (476–550 CE)

Aryabhata was an ancient Indian mathematician and astronomer who made important contributions to the field of mathematics, including the concept of place value, the approximation of pi, and the solution of linear equations. He is best known for his work on astronomical calculations and his discovery of the formula for finding the area of a cyclic quadrilateral. One of his most famous mathematical works is the Aryabhatiya, a treatise that contains a comprehensive system of mathematics, including solutions to mathematical problems, arithmetic rules, and geometric constructions. It is considered to be one of the most important mathematical works of ancient India and has had a profound impact on the development of mathematics in the region.

## Brahmagupta (598–670 CE)

Brahmagupta was an Indian mathematician and astronomer who is best known for his work in the field of mathematics, particularly his contributions to the study of numbers, algebra, and geometry. He is credited with discovering Brahmagupta’s formula for finding the area of a cyclic quadrilateral, as well as for his work on the solution of linear and quadratic equations.

## Bhaskara II (1114-1185 CE)

Bhaskara was an Indian mathematician and astronomer who made significant contributions to the field of mathematics, including the solution of linear and quadratic equations, the development of algorithms for finding square roots, and the discovery of the principles of differentiation and integration. He is also known for his work on astronomical calculations and for his development of a new system for expressing large numbers.

## Madhava of Sangamagrama (1340-1425 CE)

Madhava of Sangamagrama was an Indian mathematician and astronomer who is considered to be the founder of the Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics. He made important contributions to the field of mathematics, including the discovery of infinite series expansions of trigonometric functions and the development of the power series method for solving mathematical problems.

## Srinivasa Ramanujan (1887-1920 CE)

Srinivasa Ramanujan was an Indian mathematician who made major contributions to the field of mathematics, including the discovery of highly composite numbers, the solution of indeterminate equations, and the development of new methods for evaluating mathematical constants. He is widely considered to be one of the greatest mathematicians of the 20th century.

## Nilakantha Somayaji (1444-1544 CE)

Nilakantha Somayaji was an Indian mathematician and astronomer who made significant contributions to the field of mathematics, including the discovery of a new method for finding the value of pi, the development of algorithms for solving mathematical problems, and the solution of indeterminate equations. One of his most notable contributions was the development of a new method for finding the value of pi, which is a mathematical constant that represents the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter. His method was more accurate than previous methods and was widely used by mathematicians in India and elsewhere.

## Jagadish Chandra Bose (1858-1937 CE)

Jagadish Chandra Bose was an Indian physicist, biologist, and mathematician who made important contributions to the field of mathematics, including the development of a new method for solving partial differential equations and the discovery of the principles of electromagnetic wave theory. Bose is best known for his pioneering work in the field of radio science and the discovery of the properties of microwaves. He is considered to be the father of radio science in India and was one of the first scientists to investigate the behavior of radio waves and develop a device for detecting them.

## Satyendra Nath Bose (1894-1974 CE)

Satyendra Nath Bose was an Indian physicist and mathematician who made important contributions to the field of mathematics, including the discovery of Bose-Einstein statistics and the development of the Bose-Einstein condensate. He is best known for his work on quantum mechanics and the theory of photons. Bose is best known for his work on the theory of light and matter, which led to the discovery of a new class of particles known as bosons. His work in this area was done in collaboration with Albert Einstein, and the two scientists together developed the Bose-Einstein statistics, which describes the behavior of bosons.

## Srinivasa Ramanujan (1887-1920 CE)

Srinivasa Ramanujan.Srinivasa Ramanujan (1887-1920 CE) was an Indian mathematician and autodidact who made significant contributions to the field of mathematics. He was born into a poor family in Erode, Tamil Nadu, India and showed a remarkable talent for mathematics from a young age. Despite having limited formal education, he developed a deep understanding of mathematics through self-study and correspondence with other mathematicians.

## CV Raman (1888-1970 CE)

CV Raman was an Indian physicist and mathematician who made important contributions to the field of mathematics, including the discovery of the Raman effect and the development of new methods for studying the properties of materials. He is best known for his work on the study of light and its interactions with matter. Raman is best known for his discovery of the Raman Effect, which is the inelastic scattering of light by molecules. This discovery led to the development of a new field of study known as Raman spectroscopy, which has numerous applications in the fields of physics, chemistry, and biology. The Raman Effect is widely used to study the vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system.

## Subramanyan Chandrasekhar (1910-1995 CE)

Subramanyan Chandrasekhar was an Indian physicist and mathematician who made important contributions to the field of mathematics, including the development of the Chandrasekhar limit, a critical mass limit for stars, and the discovery of the principles of hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic stability. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1983 for his pioneering work in the field of astrophysics.

## Homi Bhabha (1909-1966 CE)

Homi Bhabha was an Indian physicist and mathematician who made important contributions to the field of mathematics, including the discovery of the Bhabha scattering process, a fundamental process in the interaction of cosmic rays with matter. He is widely regarded as the father of India’s nuclear program. Bhabha’s work on nuclear physics and his leadership of the Indian nuclear program had a profound impact on the development of science and technology in India. He was a visionary scientist who believed that science and technology could be harnessed for the development and progress of India. He was a strong advocate for the development of science education in India and his legacy continues to inspire future generations of scientists and mathematicians.

## Shakuntala Devi (1929-2013 CE)

Shakuntala Devi was an Indian mathematician and author who was widely known as the “human computer” due to her exceptional mental calculation abilities. She was best known for her work on solving mathematical problems using mental arithmetic, and for her contribution to the popularization of mathematics in India. In 1977, Devi was recorded in the Guinness Book of World Records for multiplying two 13-digit numbers in just 28 seconds, a feat that is still considered remarkable today. She continued to perform and demonstrate her abilities throughout her life, and her performances inspired many people and helped to raise awareness about the potential of human mental abilities.

## Manjul Bhargava (1974-present)

Manjul Bhargava is an Indian-American mathematician and Fields Medalist, known for his work in the field of number theory. He has made important contributions to the study of elliptic curves, modular forms, and Galois representations, and has also worked on the theory of distributions and the study of diophantine equations. Bhargava has been a professor of mathematics at Princeton University since 2003 and has also served as a visiting professor at institutions around the world. In addition to his academic work, he has been involved in several initiatives aimed at promoting mathematics education and increasing access to mathematics education for students from underrepresented communities.

## Varahamihira (505-587 CE)

Varahamihira was an Indian astronomer and mathematician who made important contributions to the field of mathematics, including the development of the table of sines, the discovery of the principles of spherical astronomy, and the solution of mathematical problems related to trigonometry and astronomy. He is also known for his work on astrology and for his contribution to the development of Indian astrological science.

The contribution of Indian mathematicians to the field of mathematics is a testament to the country’s rich cultural heritage and intellectual tradition. From ancient times to the present day, India has produced many great mathematicians and astronomers who have made important contributions to the field and left a lasting legacy. These individuals have not only advanced our understanding of mathematics but have also had a significant impact on the wider world, shaping the course of human history and paving the way for future generations of mathematicians and scientists. Their work continues to inspire future generations of mathematicians and their legacy will be remembered for centuries to come. These 15 famous Indian mathematicians of all time stand as shining examples of the brilliant minds that have emerged from India and continue to shape our world.